Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Superpave Binder Specifications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Superpave Binder Specifications - Essay Example The distresses include fatigue, thermal cracking, and rutting. Tests related to performance were essentially applied to address the three distresses. The distresses are attributed to climate changes. Another specification is grade selection. The grade selection specification entails the determination of temperature extremes for the performance of the pavement. Typically, pavement performs under a certain range of temperatures (Texas Department of Transportation). The grade can be established by indicating the low or high temperatures for pavement performance. Distress and tests form another specification in which the binder and pavement life become predictable when the pavement lasts long enough. Testing for compliance is important to establish the PG binder grade. This is done through classification and verification for unknown and known PG grade respectively (Texas Department of Transportation). The proper binder grade for Bowling Green, Kentucky area is selected based on the Super pave aggregate requirements. The pavements have to satisfy the compaction requirements, which are unusual. The binder grade needs to have at least 92 percent of solid density (The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). This would be due to the unusual compaction requirements that would be applied (The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). Segregation may be used to describe various phenomena, but it is typically short of homogeneity in the constituents of hot mix asphalt for the in-place mat. It has such a magnitude to an extent that there is an expectation of pavement distresses that are highly accelerated. The segregation of HMA pavements is a major problem because it results in poor performances in many pavements (Cross and Brown, 1).

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Satisfaction of Occupants in PV 10 Condominium

Satisfaction of Occupants in PV 10 Condominium The Study of Satisfaction Level of Occupants towards the Maintenance and Facilities in PV10 Condominium Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1  Background The population in Malaysia is on a rapid growth and this can be seen in the last three (3) years, 2007 – 2009. According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia, the population growth was from 27.17 million (2007) to 28.31 million (2009). That shows an increase of 1.14 million within three (3) years. This population figure was last updated on the 31 st July 2009. (Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website, 2009) According to the International and National Context of Growth from the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020, the figure below illustrates the function of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC). The figure illustrates ‘functional pyramid’ for the KLC with more specialised urban functions towards the apex of the pyramid, which represents Kuala Lumpur and more general functions towards its base, representing the remainder of the KLC. (DBKL International and National Context of Growth, 2009) From Figure 1, it is shown that the number of population increases. However, the land area still remains the same. Land scarcity is faced by the people of Kuala Lumpur as more construction works are carried out to meet the demand of the increasing population. The relationship between population and living standard is obvious as the graph shows that the living standard is proportional to the population. According to Datuk Michael Yam (2009), Kuala Lumpur’s 1.7 million population is expected to expand by 30% within the next decade and that the market is getting more sophisticated with consumers demanding more facilities, convenience and built quality to improve their quality of life. (The Star, 28 March 2009) Condominiums are on high demand in a high density area like Kuala Lumpur due to the population increase and at the same time this highly populated area is facing scarcity of land. However, the satisfaction of the occupants in a condominium is important to ensure that developers will be able to continue to expand such projects in their firm. This is because, liberalization or opening up of the market gives wider choices of goods or services for consumers which contribute to their satisfaction. (The Star, 6 July 2009) Therefore, the facilities and maintenance provided in a condominium are important to meet the occupants’ satisfaction towards the condominium they are staying. 1.2  Problem Statement In Malaysia, as the population rises through the years, the construction of condominium development also has to increase to meet the demand of increasing residents. As the latest statistic stated that there is a population of 28.31 million (in 2009), there will also be an increase in land use. (Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website, 2009) In Kuala Lumpur, despite the softer conditions in the property market construction will still be an on-going process. According to one of the top companies like Sunrise Sdn. Bhd, they expect to perform well in the next two to three years due to its high unbilled sales of RM 1.36 billion. As at July, Sunrise had sold 93% of 10 Mount’ Kiara (MK10) units, 45% of 11 Mount’ Kiara (MK 11), 92% of Solaris Dutamas, 9% of The Residence Phase 2B, 90% of Mont’ Kiara Meridin, 95% of Mont’ Kiara Banyan, and 100% of Kiara Designer Suites-Kiara Walk. (The Star, 29 October 2008) As Sunrise is focusing more on the condominium residential type of construction, it is shown that condominium is still in high demand despite the slow economic flow at the moment. However, there must be certain factors which cause the homebuyers to set their mind on purchasing the condominium of their choice. To successfully compete in the long term, the company must be sure that existing customers are satisfied. Providing superior quality and keeping customers satisfied are rapidly becoming the ways for companies to stand out among the other companies. (Zeljko M. Torbica  and  Robert C. Stroh., 2001) According to the National House Buyers Association, management and maintenance ranked second in the types of complaint in the complaints statistics. (National House Buyers Association, 2006) The complaints statistics is as illustrated in Figure 2. Therefore, it is important to carry out the research about the satisfaction of the occupants in the aspect of the maintenance and facilities provided in a condominium. Besides that, ways of improving the maintenance and facilities from the occupants’ point of view will also be carried out in this research. 1.3  Aim Objectives Aim To look into the satisfaction levels of occupants towards the maintenance and facilities of the condominium. Objectives To determine the satisfaction of occupants in PV 10 Condominium with the maintenance and facilities provided. To determine the ways to improve the maintenance and facilities to increase the satisfaction of occupants in PV10 Condominium. 1.4  Benefits/Importance of Study This study will benefit three parties; consisting of the developer, the management of the condominium and the occupants of condominiums. The developers will be able to plan their construction wisely to increase the demand in houses and preserve the developer’s reputation as it is one of the essential key to success for a developer. On the other hand, occupants or homebuyers will benefit when they are able to purchase and stay in the type of house they wish to have, and to own a worth buying piece of property. Besides that, the management of the condominium will be able to plan their management in the maintenance and facilities offered to the occupants as this is the key to customer satisfaction. 1.5  Scope of Study This case study will be carried out in PV 10, Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak. There are 4 blocks of condominium in PV10 and they will be taken into consideration for this research. This place is chosen because it is one of the latest condominiums built in one of the highly populated area. Maintenance and facilities offered will be further looked into. The maintenance in the condominium will cover the cleanliness and collection of rubbish maintenance, the lifts operation and lighting maintenance and water maintenance. On the other hand, the facilities in the condominium will cover the recreational facilities such as play ground for children, health facilities and the safety facilities. In addition, another facility which will be looked into will be the car parks provided. Maintenance of facilities will also be explained. 1.6  Research Methodology 1.6.1  Introduction The increase in condominium construction is proportional to the rapid growth of the population in Malaysia. Besides that, land scarcity in high density areas of Kuala Lumpur forces the people to go further into the development of condominiums. 1.6.2  Literature Review Data collected will be secondary type of data collection. They consist of: Books Relevant books will be from the Tunku Abdul Rahman Library and National Library. The type of books will be those under building maintenance, facility management, economy, development, research and dissertation studies, property management and other relevant books to the research study. Magazines and Newspapers Magazines and newspapers used will be from local newspapers and magazines. Newspapers search will be the online type of newspaper. News and updates will be taken based on current issues regarding construction, development, property, and maintenance and facilities management that are reported in the newspapers and magazines. Online resources and Journals Online resources will be from reliable sources which provide reference of research papers such as online journals and articles. Relevant sources to the research studies will be taken into consideration through these websites. Online journals will also be those which are regarding with the research study and are available through the college library website which linked to reliable sources such as Emerald.   1.6.3  Background PV10 will be the place of case study for this research. This condominium is situated at Jalan Genting Kelang. Resources will be obtained from the management of the condominium and the developer of the condominium. 1.6.4  Analysis Primary data will be used in this research and data through this type of data will be analysed. Questionnaire will be selected in order to scrutinize the feedback from the respondent. First, a set of questionnaire will be set. After that, the set of questionnaire will be distributed to occupants in PV10 to get their responds. A selected sample size of 200 will be chosen randomly. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software will be used to analyse the data. Snowball sampling type will be used to determine the satisfaction of occupants in PV10. This type of sampling is chosen as this sampling design will be given out randomly. Besides that, this study design will increase the number of participants in process. 1.6.5  Conclusion Recommendation Ways of improving the condominium will be suggested base on the data that will be collected. References Author unknown, Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website. 2009. Population (updated 31 July 2009). Viewed on 2 August 2009. Available from: Author unknown, DBKL. 2009. Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020: International and National Context of Growth. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Ng, A. 2009. Raising KL’s living standards. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Tan Sri Abdul Rahman Mamat, 2009. Making sense of liberalisation. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Author unknown, 2009. Sunrise is confident RM1.3bil in unbilled sales can sustain performance over three years. Viewed 10 July 2009. Available from: Torbica, Zeljko M. and Stroh., Robert C. 2001. ‘Customer satisfaction in home building’. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 127(1), pp.82. Author unknown, 2006. Complaints Statistics. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1  Introduction Looking into the population of the world, it is clear that the population will increase as the years go by. The population in the urban areas will increase while the population in the rural areas will decrease through the years. This can be proven when the United Nations (2008), when the World Urbanization Prospects the 2007 Revision corroborates that the world population will reach a landmark in 2008 for the first time in history, as the urban population will equal the rural population of the world and, from then on, the world population will be urban in its majority. The United Nation (2008) also stated that from the year 2007 to 2050, the world population is expected to increase by 2.5 billion, passing from 6.7 billion to 9.7 billion. At the same time, the population living in urban areas is to gain 3.1 billion in 2007 to 6.4 billion in 2050. Thus, the urban form has interdependently affected the development and the governance of the city. Generally, the population in Malaysia will increase as the years go by. The population in the urban areas will increase and this can be seen in the increasing population of the World – Class City of Kuala Lumpur. The Draft Kuala Lumpur (KL) City Plan 2020 has five (5) core guiding principles that will frame the draft, and one of these principles is Planning ‘For and With’ the People (DBKL, 2009). Density Structure of Kuala Lumpur Strategic Zones Area Sq. Kms Population 2005 Density 2005 (person/ sq. km) Population 2020 Density 2020 (person/ sq. km) City Centre 17.7915 143,000 8,038 245,611 13,805 Figure 4 shows the density structure of Kuala Lumpur. The figure also shows that Wangsa Maju – Maluri which is within the Setapak area, rank the highest in the 2005 data on population. At the same time, the population is expected to increase and become the third highest in population by the year 2020. According to the DBKL (2009), Kuala Lumpur is a city that houses 2.2 million populations and provides employment to 1.4 million people. The City will thus ensure whatever its plans, builds or develop are based on the wants and needs of the people. Furthermore, the Future Population of Kuala Lumpur in DBKL (2009) stressed that Kuala Lumpur must be liveable in order to encourage people to live in the City comfortably and through the plan allows for an additional 600,000 people in the next 12 years. From the Draft KL City Plan 2020, it shows that the satisfaction of the occupants is also taken into consideration when planning of the city is done. Therefore, this research will focus on the satisfaction level of occupants in one of the most populated area, Setapak. In this chapter, there will be reviews on some key words definition regarding the research study from various sources and the various maintenance and facilities which may also include explanation on some of the types of maintenance and function of maintenance. Reports and case studies on maintenance and facilities will also be included in this chapter. 2.1.1  Definitions The satisfaction level of occupants towards the maintenance and facilities in a condominium can be defined as the repair works and the upkeep of a condominium together with the functional things and services provided which fulfil the needs, claim or desire that gives gratification to the occupants or residents of the condominium. Further clarification of this statement can be found through the definition of the key words such as satisfaction, occupants, maintenance, facilities and condominium. 2.1.1.1  Satisfaction Finch (2004) proposed that customer satisfaction with facilities is determined not only by technical performance, but also by â€Å"an intricate set of exchange process†, such as effective communication and management of expectations.  Salleh and Abdul Ghani (2008) also mentioned that residential and neighbourhood satisfaction is an important indicator of housing quality and condition, which affects individuals’ quality of life. Besides that, according to the MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009), satisfaction means happiness with arrangement, which can refer to the happiness with the way that something has been arranged or done. On the other hand, Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) defined satisfaction is the state of being satisfied and by the law, it is the payment of a debt of fulfilment of an obligation or claim. In addition, Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) further defines that satisfaction is a feeling of happiness or pleasure when someone gets something that they want, need or have demanded. 2.1.1.2  Occupant The Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) defines occupants as someone who lives in a house, room etc. Meanwhile, MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines occupant as a resident of a place. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further clarifies that occupant as a person who occupies a place at a given time. Besides that, according to the Laws of Malaysia (2007), occupier means the person in actual occupation of the building, but, in the case of premises for lodging purposes, does not include a lodger. 2.1.1.3  Maintenance Maintenance is synonymous with controlling the condition of a building so that its pattern lies within specified regions as defined by Lee (White, 1969). The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines maintenance as the continuing repair work where work that is done regularly to keep a machine, building or piece of equipment in good condition and working order. Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further defines maintenance as the process of maintaining or being maintained. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) also clarifies in depth that maintenance is the repairs, painting etc. that are necessary to keep something in good condition. In fact, Chanter and Swallow (1996) identified maintenance as actions that relate not only to the physical execution of maintenance work, but also those concerned with its initiation, financing and organisation, and the notion of an acceptable condition. This implies an understanding of the requirements for the effective usage of the building and its parts, which in turn compels broader consideration of building performance from the definition of BS3811 (1984), as it defines maintenance as a combination of any actions carried out to retain an item in, or restore it to an acceptable condition. Besides that, Singh (1996) further defined building maintenance as work undertaken in order to keep, restore or improve every facility, i.e. every part of a building, its services and surrounds to a currently accepted standard, and to sustain the utility and value of facility. 2.1.1.4  Facilties The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines facility as something with particular function, in which something is designed or created to provide a service or fulfil a need. Besides that, Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) defines facility as a building, service, or piece of equipment provided for a particular purpose. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) further defines facility as a place or building used for a particular activity or industry, or for providing a particular type of service. With these definitions explained from the dictionaries, facilities can be define as services or equipments provided to improve the effectiveness of a building. However, facilities are further clarified by the Charted Institute of Building (CIOB) with the definition that facilities management is an umbrella term under which a wide range of property and user – related functions may be brought together for the benefit of the organisation and its employees as a whole (Flanagan et al., 1995). Meanwhile, Alexander (1996) mentioned in his paper that facilities management is first and foremost about organizational effectiveness. 2.1.1.5  Condominum The House Buyers Association (2009) mentioned that the word â€Å"condominium† comes from the Latin word â€Å"con† which means â€Å"together† and â€Å"dominium, meaning â€Å"property†. There are two parts in this type of property ownership. They are the ownership of the individual unit and joint ownership of the common property, in which the property is shared with other unit owners in the project. The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines condominium as an individually owned apartment, which is an individually owned unit of real estate, especially an apartment or town house, in a building or on land that is owned in common by the owners of the units. Meanwhile, the Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further defines condominium as a building or complex containing a number of individually owned flats or houses. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) later defines that condominium is one apartment in a building with several apartments, each of w hich is owned by the people living in it. 2.2  Maintenance In Condominium For the maintenance in condominium in Malaysia, there is an act that was specially gazetted on 12th April 2007 for the purpose of maintaining the condominium and its surrounding, together with the facilities available in the condominium. According to the Laws of Malaysia (2007), under the act 663 building and common property (maintenance and management) act 2007, the act is to provide for proper maintenance and management of building and common property, and for matters incidental thereto. Maintenance in the condominium comprises maintenance of all the common property area in the condominium. The building and common property (maintenance and management) act 2007 further defines common property as development area not comprised in any parcel, such as the structural elements of the building, stairs, stairways, fire escapes, entrances and exits, corridors, lobbies, fixtures and fittings, lifts, refuse chutes, refuse bins, compounds, drains, water tanks, sewers, pipes, wires, cables and ducts that serve more than one parcel, the exterior of all common parts of the building, playing fields and recreational areas, driveways, car parks and parking areas, open spaces, landscape areas, walls and fences, and all other facilities and installations and any part of the land used or capable of being used or enjoyed in common by all the occupiers of the building. Charges which means any money collected by the owner, developer, Body or managing agent from the purchaser for the maintenance and management of the building or land intended for subdivision into parcels and common property, will be taken from the building maintenance account which is also known as building maintenance fund after the account is passed to the Joint Management Body (Laws of Malaysia, 2007). 2.2.1  Types of Maintenance According to Gurjit Singh (1996), generally, maintenance management can be approached in the following ways: Cyclical maintenance: this is maintenance for recurring items such as redecoration. Non-cyclical maintenance: this will apply to the items identified in the condition survey and includes items that need major repairs and replacements. Planned preventive maintenance: this is maintenance which is carried out on regular basis to prevent breakdowns. It has the advantage of predicting the loss of facility to the owner and down-time. Emergency maintenance: this is maintenance which is carried out only when there is a breakdown. It is normally expensive and increases the amount of non – productive time. Chanter and Swallow (1996) further explained the types of maintenance according to definitions given in BS 3811 and produced flow charts to summarise the types of maintenance and decision based types of maintenance as below: (1)  Planned maintenance: This is maintenance organised and carried out with forethought, control and the use of records to a predetermined plan. (2)  Unplanned maintenance: Ad hoc maintenance carried out to no predetermined plan. (3)  Preventive maintenance: Maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals, or corresponding to prescribed criteria, and intended to reduce the probability of failure, or the performance degradation of an item. (4)  Corrective maintenance: Maintenance carried out after failure has occurred, and intended to restore an item to a state in which it can perform its required function. (5)  Emergency maintenance: Maintenance which it is necessary to put in hand immediately to avoid serious consequences. (6)  Condition – based maintenance: Preventive maintenance initiated as a result of knowledge of the condition of an item from routine or continuous monitoring. (7)  Scheduled maintenance: Preventive maintenance carried out to a pre – determined interval of time, number of operations, mileage, etc. Figure 5  Decision based types of maintenance Source: Chanter and Swallow (1996) 2.2.2  Maintenance Function Miles and Syagga (1987) mentioned that the function of maintenance can be divided into three groups. These three groups consist of cleaning and servicing, rectification and repair, and replacement. Both authors also added that cleaning and servicing should be carried out regularly and may be combined with a system of reporting faults, so that repairs can be carried out soon after faults become apparent, thereby avoiding the need for more expensive repairs or even replacement at a later stage. 2.2.3  Malaysias Report On Poor Maintenance According to the report from National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2005), residents of Mount Karunmas Condominium fret over cracks in car park. Residents want the developer or maintenance company of the building to rectify the cracks that have appeared on the beams in the car park. Besides the cracks, there was a water leak from the extension joints which were connected to the slabs. In this case, the developer and the maintenance parties did not deliver their duty and responsibility well despites the complaints from the residents and had pin point each other to take hold of the work. In such case, the matter was brought to the press and the local council and the developer in the end stood up rectify the defects and mentioned that defects were only minor cracks.   In another report regarding to maintenance, there was a statement stating that one of the many issues of public concern is how to develop a strong maintenance culture in Malaysia in the interest of public safety and convenience. There was also an addition stating that Malaysia is known as a country which prides itself on the provision of First World infrastructure but not in terms of its maintenance (The Star,24 June 2009) The Star (2009) also mentioned that poor maintenance of children’s playground can result in accidents and injuries. Besides that, poor maintenance of public buildings and infrastructures can also cause accidents, injuries and also flash floods when roads and public drains are not properly maintained. (The Star, 24 June 2009) When maintenance are not done properly, image of the country is also not preserved as tourist would come to Malaysia to visit and this give a bad image to the country when maintenance are poorly done. According to the Star (24 June 2009) improving a country’s image is not only the responsibility of the Government but also the duty of each citizen who must be civic – minded. According to the Star (7 May 2009) former squatters moved into the Putri Laksamana apartments in Batu Caves had to deal with poor maintenance, cracking tiles, water leakages, sewage problems and even snakes entering their houses for four years. According to Sundramoorthy Veerasamy (2009), when they moved into the apartment which comprises of 400 units, many of the units had cracked floor tiles and water leaking from the roof and pipes. There were also drainage and garbage problem, and even though the Selayang Municipal Council (MPS) promised to solve the problem, it has been eight months since the problem have not been solved (Sundramoorthy Veerasamy, 2009). Sundramoorthy (2009) also mentioned that they are losing faith in the councillors and state government finding a solution. From this, Government should be able to come out with a solution to help these residents as they are also the citizens of Malaysia and deserve to live in a properly maintained place. Poor maintenance can also lead to criminal activities. According to the Star (7 May 2009) criminal activities like snatch thefts, break-ins, and motorcycle and car thefts are rampant there and drug addicts and pushers also haunt the area of the apartment. MPS councillor Gopalan Krishnan Rajoo (2009) also mentioned that because there is no Joint Management Body (JMB) for the apartment, it is difficult to solve the problems and residents were urged to form the JMB to bring up the residents’ problems so that they can be solved easily. From this report, it is shown that forming a JMB in a community is important to solve certain problems and that increase in poor maintenance also would increase the crime rate in the area. 2.2.4  Case Study of Poor Maintenance Abdulmohsen Al – Hammad, Sadi Assaf and Mansoor Al – Shihah (1997) in their research which outlines the defects and faults during the design stage that affect building maintenance in Saudi Arabia and their relative degree of importance, came out with a table on the level of importance of design defects on building maintenance. The following tables show the result from the questionnaire done from their research on the defects. From the table above, the maintenance practicality and adequacy which is one of the defect groups rank the highest among the owners. When maintenance are not planned and done adequately, there will be defects and the defects will worsen causing the building to be not safe for the occupants and even aesthetically affected. 2.3  Facilties In Condominium In Malaysia, there are many types of facilities available in a condominium. The National House Buyers Association (2009) mentioned that there are many facilities and services in a condominium, such as lifts, swimming pool, gym, tennis court, landscaped gardens and even security services. Further explanation was that these facilities and services are expensive to maintain. Facilities are actually one of the important key aspects which purchasers will look into when buying a condominium. This is because purchasers have to understand that they when purchasing a unit of the condominium, two things are bought. These two things are the individual unit and the common property which includes all the facilities available in the condominium. Nowadays, facilities play a big role in portraying the image of the condominium. Besides that, facilities available in a condominium also determine and set a standard to the condominium. This can be seen when the low – end condominiums and high – end condominiums are being compared. Types of facilities available will be very different for both types of condominium, where the facilities in the high – end condominiums are more and much better than those of low – end condominiums. 2.3.1  Malaysias Report On Facilities National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2008) reported that hairline cracks have appeared on pillars and car park areas of the Sri Gotong apartment block in Batu Caves for the past year. One of the occupants, Abd Rahman Suraiman, mentioned that the management company Benih Kencana Sdn. Bhd. Should act fast to prevent the situation from getting worse. According to Rahman, who is secretary of the Sri Gotong Apartment Batu Caves Pro – tem Committee, the apartment was supposed to have condominium facilities like swimming pool, recreational area and sauna, but such facilities were lacking and the place was not properly maintained. Rahman also mentioned that the sauna room is locked, the gymnasium equipment is damaged and ever since he started staying there, one of the lifts stopped working and has yet to be repair. This report shows that lacking of facilities in a condominium will also cause dissatisfaction to the occupants. Thus, this kind of problem gives the condominium a bad image. In another report from the National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2004) stated that the local authorities are often hampered in their efforts to build sports facilities when developers, in fulfilling the requirement of providing open areas, allocate land that is too small or narrow. The report also added that local authorities wanted to provide more recreational facilities, especially in housing estates, but were unable to do so in some areas due to the lack of land. Developers would usually tell local authorities that they had carried out their responsibility by providing recreational through building playgrounds which are meant for younger children and this leaves teenagers without a proper place for recreation. According to the report, this could more likely cause teenagers. Therefore, it is wise that the developers to allocate Satisfaction of Occupants in PV 10 Condominium Satisfaction of Occupants in PV 10 Condominium The Study of Satisfaction Level of Occupants towards the Maintenance and Facilities in PV10 Condominium Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1  Background The population in Malaysia is on a rapid growth and this can be seen in the last three (3) years, 2007 – 2009. According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia, the population growth was from 27.17 million (2007) to 28.31 million (2009). That shows an increase of 1.14 million within three (3) years. This population figure was last updated on the 31 st July 2009. (Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website, 2009) According to the International and National Context of Growth from the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020, the figure below illustrates the function of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC). The figure illustrates ‘functional pyramid’ for the KLC with more specialised urban functions towards the apex of the pyramid, which represents Kuala Lumpur and more general functions towards its base, representing the remainder of the KLC. (DBKL International and National Context of Growth, 2009) From Figure 1, it is shown that the number of population increases. However, the land area still remains the same. Land scarcity is faced by the people of Kuala Lumpur as more construction works are carried out to meet the demand of the increasing population. The relationship between population and living standard is obvious as the graph shows that the living standard is proportional to the population. According to Datuk Michael Yam (2009), Kuala Lumpur’s 1.7 million population is expected to expand by 30% within the next decade and that the market is getting more sophisticated with consumers demanding more facilities, convenience and built quality to improve their quality of life. (The Star, 28 March 2009) Condominiums are on high demand in a high density area like Kuala Lumpur due to the population increase and at the same time this highly populated area is facing scarcity of land. However, the satisfaction of the occupants in a condominium is important to ensure that developers will be able to continue to expand such projects in their firm. This is because, liberalization or opening up of the market gives wider choices of goods or services for consumers which contribute to their satisfaction. (The Star, 6 July 2009) Therefore, the facilities and maintenance provided in a condominium are important to meet the occupants’ satisfaction towards the condominium they are staying. 1.2  Problem Statement In Malaysia, as the population rises through the years, the construction of condominium development also has to increase to meet the demand of increasing residents. As the latest statistic stated that there is a population of 28.31 million (in 2009), there will also be an increase in land use. (Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website, 2009) In Kuala Lumpur, despite the softer conditions in the property market construction will still be an on-going process. According to one of the top companies like Sunrise Sdn. Bhd, they expect to perform well in the next two to three years due to its high unbilled sales of RM 1.36 billion. As at July, Sunrise had sold 93% of 10 Mount’ Kiara (MK10) units, 45% of 11 Mount’ Kiara (MK 11), 92% of Solaris Dutamas, 9% of The Residence Phase 2B, 90% of Mont’ Kiara Meridin, 95% of Mont’ Kiara Banyan, and 100% of Kiara Designer Suites-Kiara Walk. (The Star, 29 October 2008) As Sunrise is focusing more on the condominium residential type of construction, it is shown that condominium is still in high demand despite the slow economic flow at the moment. However, there must be certain factors which cause the homebuyers to set their mind on purchasing the condominium of their choice. To successfully compete in the long term, the company must be sure that existing customers are satisfied. Providing superior quality and keeping customers satisfied are rapidly becoming the ways for companies to stand out among the other companies. (Zeljko M. Torbica  and  Robert C. Stroh., 2001) According to the National House Buyers Association, management and maintenance ranked second in the types of complaint in the complaints statistics. (National House Buyers Association, 2006) The complaints statistics is as illustrated in Figure 2. Therefore, it is important to carry out the research about the satisfaction of the occupants in the aspect of the maintenance and facilities provided in a condominium. Besides that, ways of improving the maintenance and facilities from the occupants’ point of view will also be carried out in this research. 1.3  Aim Objectives Aim To look into the satisfaction levels of occupants towards the maintenance and facilities of the condominium. Objectives To determine the satisfaction of occupants in PV 10 Condominium with the maintenance and facilities provided. To determine the ways to improve the maintenance and facilities to increase the satisfaction of occupants in PV10 Condominium. 1.4  Benefits/Importance of Study This study will benefit three parties; consisting of the developer, the management of the condominium and the occupants of condominiums. The developers will be able to plan their construction wisely to increase the demand in houses and preserve the developer’s reputation as it is one of the essential key to success for a developer. On the other hand, occupants or homebuyers will benefit when they are able to purchase and stay in the type of house they wish to have, and to own a worth buying piece of property. Besides that, the management of the condominium will be able to plan their management in the maintenance and facilities offered to the occupants as this is the key to customer satisfaction. 1.5  Scope of Study This case study will be carried out in PV 10, Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak. There are 4 blocks of condominium in PV10 and they will be taken into consideration for this research. This place is chosen because it is one of the latest condominiums built in one of the highly populated area. Maintenance and facilities offered will be further looked into. The maintenance in the condominium will cover the cleanliness and collection of rubbish maintenance, the lifts operation and lighting maintenance and water maintenance. On the other hand, the facilities in the condominium will cover the recreational facilities such as play ground for children, health facilities and the safety facilities. In addition, another facility which will be looked into will be the car parks provided. Maintenance of facilities will also be explained. 1.6  Research Methodology 1.6.1  Introduction The increase in condominium construction is proportional to the rapid growth of the population in Malaysia. Besides that, land scarcity in high density areas of Kuala Lumpur forces the people to go further into the development of condominiums. 1.6.2  Literature Review Data collected will be secondary type of data collection. They consist of: Books Relevant books will be from the Tunku Abdul Rahman Library and National Library. The type of books will be those under building maintenance, facility management, economy, development, research and dissertation studies, property management and other relevant books to the research study. Magazines and Newspapers Magazines and newspapers used will be from local newspapers and magazines. Newspapers search will be the online type of newspaper. News and updates will be taken based on current issues regarding construction, development, property, and maintenance and facilities management that are reported in the newspapers and magazines. Online resources and Journals Online resources will be from reliable sources which provide reference of research papers such as online journals and articles. Relevant sources to the research studies will be taken into consideration through these websites. Online journals will also be those which are regarding with the research study and are available through the college library website which linked to reliable sources such as Emerald.   1.6.3  Background PV10 will be the place of case study for this research. This condominium is situated at Jalan Genting Kelang. Resources will be obtained from the management of the condominium and the developer of the condominium. 1.6.4  Analysis Primary data will be used in this research and data through this type of data will be analysed. Questionnaire will be selected in order to scrutinize the feedback from the respondent. First, a set of questionnaire will be set. After that, the set of questionnaire will be distributed to occupants in PV10 to get their responds. A selected sample size of 200 will be chosen randomly. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software will be used to analyse the data. Snowball sampling type will be used to determine the satisfaction of occupants in PV10. This type of sampling is chosen as this sampling design will be given out randomly. Besides that, this study design will increase the number of participants in process. 1.6.5  Conclusion Recommendation Ways of improving the condominium will be suggested base on the data that will be collected. References Author unknown, Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website. 2009. Population (updated 31 July 2009). Viewed on 2 August 2009. Available from: Author unknown, DBKL. 2009. Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020: International and National Context of Growth. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Ng, A. 2009. Raising KL’s living standards. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Tan Sri Abdul Rahman Mamat, 2009. Making sense of liberalisation. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Author unknown, 2009. Sunrise is confident RM1.3bil in unbilled sales can sustain performance over three years. Viewed 10 July 2009. Available from: Torbica, Zeljko M. and Stroh., Robert C. 2001. ‘Customer satisfaction in home building’. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 127(1), pp.82. Author unknown, 2006. Complaints Statistics. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from: Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1  Introduction Looking into the population of the world, it is clear that the population will increase as the years go by. The population in the urban areas will increase while the population in the rural areas will decrease through the years. This can be proven when the United Nations (2008), when the World Urbanization Prospects the 2007 Revision corroborates that the world population will reach a landmark in 2008 for the first time in history, as the urban population will equal the rural population of the world and, from then on, the world population will be urban in its majority. The United Nation (2008) also stated that from the year 2007 to 2050, the world population is expected to increase by 2.5 billion, passing from 6.7 billion to 9.7 billion. At the same time, the population living in urban areas is to gain 3.1 billion in 2007 to 6.4 billion in 2050. Thus, the urban form has interdependently affected the development and the governance of the city. Generally, the population in Malaysia will increase as the years go by. The population in the urban areas will increase and this can be seen in the increasing population of the World – Class City of Kuala Lumpur. The Draft Kuala Lumpur (KL) City Plan 2020 has five (5) core guiding principles that will frame the draft, and one of these principles is Planning ‘For and With’ the People (DBKL, 2009). Density Structure of Kuala Lumpur Strategic Zones Area Sq. Kms Population 2005 Density 2005 (person/ sq. km) Population 2020 Density 2020 (person/ sq. km) City Centre 17.7915 143,000 8,038 245,611 13,805 Figure 4 shows the density structure of Kuala Lumpur. The figure also shows that Wangsa Maju – Maluri which is within the Setapak area, rank the highest in the 2005 data on population. At the same time, the population is expected to increase and become the third highest in population by the year 2020. According to the DBKL (2009), Kuala Lumpur is a city that houses 2.2 million populations and provides employment to 1.4 million people. The City will thus ensure whatever its plans, builds or develop are based on the wants and needs of the people. Furthermore, the Future Population of Kuala Lumpur in DBKL (2009) stressed that Kuala Lumpur must be liveable in order to encourage people to live in the City comfortably and through the plan allows for an additional 600,000 people in the next 12 years. From the Draft KL City Plan 2020, it shows that the satisfaction of the occupants is also taken into consideration when planning of the city is done. Therefore, this research will focus on the satisfaction level of occupants in one of the most populated area, Setapak. In this chapter, there will be reviews on some key words definition regarding the research study from various sources and the various maintenance and facilities which may also include explanation on some of the types of maintenance and function of maintenance. Reports and case studies on maintenance and facilities will also be included in this chapter. 2.1.1  Definitions The satisfaction level of occupants towards the maintenance and facilities in a condominium can be defined as the repair works and the upkeep of a condominium together with the functional things and services provided which fulfil the needs, claim or desire that gives gratification to the occupants or residents of the condominium. Further clarification of this statement can be found through the definition of the key words such as satisfaction, occupants, maintenance, facilities and condominium. 2.1.1.1  Satisfaction Finch (2004) proposed that customer satisfaction with facilities is determined not only by technical performance, but also by â€Å"an intricate set of exchange process†, such as effective communication and management of expectations.  Salleh and Abdul Ghani (2008) also mentioned that residential and neighbourhood satisfaction is an important indicator of housing quality and condition, which affects individuals’ quality of life. Besides that, according to the MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009), satisfaction means happiness with arrangement, which can refer to the happiness with the way that something has been arranged or done. On the other hand, Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) defined satisfaction is the state of being satisfied and by the law, it is the payment of a debt of fulfilment of an obligation or claim. In addition, Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) further defines that satisfaction is a feeling of happiness or pleasure when someone gets something that they want, need or have demanded. 2.1.1.2  Occupant The Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) defines occupants as someone who lives in a house, room etc. Meanwhile, MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines occupant as a resident of a place. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further clarifies that occupant as a person who occupies a place at a given time. Besides that, according to the Laws of Malaysia (2007), occupier means the person in actual occupation of the building, but, in the case of premises for lodging purposes, does not include a lodger. 2.1.1.3  Maintenance Maintenance is synonymous with controlling the condition of a building so that its pattern lies within specified regions as defined by Lee (White, 1969). The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines maintenance as the continuing repair work where work that is done regularly to keep a machine, building or piece of equipment in good condition and working order. Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further defines maintenance as the process of maintaining or being maintained. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) also clarifies in depth that maintenance is the repairs, painting etc. that are necessary to keep something in good condition. In fact, Chanter and Swallow (1996) identified maintenance as actions that relate not only to the physical execution of maintenance work, but also those concerned with its initiation, financing and organisation, and the notion of an acceptable condition. This implies an understanding of the requirements for the effective usage of the building and its parts, which in turn compels broader consideration of building performance from the definition of BS3811 (1984), as it defines maintenance as a combination of any actions carried out to retain an item in, or restore it to an acceptable condition. Besides that, Singh (1996) further defined building maintenance as work undertaken in order to keep, restore or improve every facility, i.e. every part of a building, its services and surrounds to a currently accepted standard, and to sustain the utility and value of facility. 2.1.1.4  Facilties The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines facility as something with particular function, in which something is designed or created to provide a service or fulfil a need. Besides that, Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) defines facility as a building, service, or piece of equipment provided for a particular purpose. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) further defines facility as a place or building used for a particular activity or industry, or for providing a particular type of service. With these definitions explained from the dictionaries, facilities can be define as services or equipments provided to improve the effectiveness of a building. However, facilities are further clarified by the Charted Institute of Building (CIOB) with the definition that facilities management is an umbrella term under which a wide range of property and user – related functions may be brought together for the benefit of the organisation and its employees as a whole (Flanagan et al., 1995). Meanwhile, Alexander (1996) mentioned in his paper that facilities management is first and foremost about organizational effectiveness. 2.1.1.5  Condominum The House Buyers Association (2009) mentioned that the word â€Å"condominium† comes from the Latin word â€Å"con† which means â€Å"together† and â€Å"dominium, meaning â€Å"property†. There are two parts in this type of property ownership. They are the ownership of the individual unit and joint ownership of the common property, in which the property is shared with other unit owners in the project. The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines condominium as an individually owned apartment, which is an individually owned unit of real estate, especially an apartment or town house, in a building or on land that is owned in common by the owners of the units. Meanwhile, the Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further defines condominium as a building or complex containing a number of individually owned flats or houses. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) later defines that condominium is one apartment in a building with several apartments, each of w hich is owned by the people living in it. 2.2  Maintenance In Condominium For the maintenance in condominium in Malaysia, there is an act that was specially gazetted on 12th April 2007 for the purpose of maintaining the condominium and its surrounding, together with the facilities available in the condominium. According to the Laws of Malaysia (2007), under the act 663 building and common property (maintenance and management) act 2007, the act is to provide for proper maintenance and management of building and common property, and for matters incidental thereto. Maintenance in the condominium comprises maintenance of all the common property area in the condominium. The building and common property (maintenance and management) act 2007 further defines common property as development area not comprised in any parcel, such as the structural elements of the building, stairs, stairways, fire escapes, entrances and exits, corridors, lobbies, fixtures and fittings, lifts, refuse chutes, refuse bins, compounds, drains, water tanks, sewers, pipes, wires, cables and ducts that serve more than one parcel, the exterior of all common parts of the building, playing fields and recreational areas, driveways, car parks and parking areas, open spaces, landscape areas, walls and fences, and all other facilities and installations and any part of the land used or capable of being used or enjoyed in common by all the occupiers of the building. Charges which means any money collected by the owner, developer, Body or managing agent from the purchaser for the maintenance and management of the building or land intended for subdivision into parcels and common property, will be taken from the building maintenance account which is also known as building maintenance fund after the account is passed to the Joint Management Body (Laws of Malaysia, 2007). 2.2.1  Types of Maintenance According to Gurjit Singh (1996), generally, maintenance management can be approached in the following ways: Cyclical maintenance: this is maintenance for recurring items such as redecoration. Non-cyclical maintenance: this will apply to the items identified in the condition survey and includes items that need major repairs and replacements. Planned preventive maintenance: this is maintenance which is carried out on regular basis to prevent breakdowns. It has the advantage of predicting the loss of facility to the owner and down-time. Emergency maintenance: this is maintenance which is carried out only when there is a breakdown. It is normally expensive and increases the amount of non – productive time. Chanter and Swallow (1996) further explained the types of maintenance according to definitions given in BS 3811 and produced flow charts to summarise the types of maintenance and decision based types of maintenance as below: (1)  Planned maintenance: This is maintenance organised and carried out with forethought, control and the use of records to a predetermined plan. (2)  Unplanned maintenance: Ad hoc maintenance carried out to no predetermined plan. (3)  Preventive maintenance: Maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals, or corresponding to prescribed criteria, and intended to reduce the probability of failure, or the performance degradation of an item. (4)  Corrective maintenance: Maintenance carried out after failure has occurred, and intended to restore an item to a state in which it can perform its required function. (5)  Emergency maintenance: Maintenance which it is necessary to put in hand immediately to avoid serious consequences. (6)  Condition – based maintenance: Preventive maintenance initiated as a result of knowledge of the condition of an item from routine or continuous monitoring. (7)  Scheduled maintenance: Preventive maintenance carried out to a pre – determined interval of time, number of operations, mileage, etc. Figure 5  Decision based types of maintenance Source: Chanter and Swallow (1996) 2.2.2  Maintenance Function Miles and Syagga (1987) mentioned that the function of maintenance can be divided into three groups. These three groups consist of cleaning and servicing, rectification and repair, and replacement. Both authors also added that cleaning and servicing should be carried out regularly and may be combined with a system of reporting faults, so that repairs can be carried out soon after faults become apparent, thereby avoiding the need for more expensive repairs or even replacement at a later stage. 2.2.3  Malaysias Report On Poor Maintenance According to the report from National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2005), residents of Mount Karunmas Condominium fret over cracks in car park. Residents want the developer or maintenance company of the building to rectify the cracks that have appeared on the beams in the car park. Besides the cracks, there was a water leak from the extension joints which were connected to the slabs. In this case, the developer and the maintenance parties did not deliver their duty and responsibility well despites the complaints from the residents and had pin point each other to take hold of the work. In such case, the matter was brought to the press and the local council and the developer in the end stood up rectify the defects and mentioned that defects were only minor cracks.   In another report regarding to maintenance, there was a statement stating that one of the many issues of public concern is how to develop a strong maintenance culture in Malaysia in the interest of public safety and convenience. There was also an addition stating that Malaysia is known as a country which prides itself on the provision of First World infrastructure but not in terms of its maintenance (The Star,24 June 2009) The Star (2009) also mentioned that poor maintenance of children’s playground can result in accidents and injuries. Besides that, poor maintenance of public buildings and infrastructures can also cause accidents, injuries and also flash floods when roads and public drains are not properly maintained. (The Star, 24 June 2009) When maintenance are not done properly, image of the country is also not preserved as tourist would come to Malaysia to visit and this give a bad image to the country when maintenance are poorly done. According to the Star (24 June 2009) improving a country’s image is not only the responsibility of the Government but also the duty of each citizen who must be civic – minded. According to the Star (7 May 2009) former squatters moved into the Putri Laksamana apartments in Batu Caves had to deal with poor maintenance, cracking tiles, water leakages, sewage problems and even snakes entering their houses for four years. According to Sundramoorthy Veerasamy (2009), when they moved into the apartment which comprises of 400 units, many of the units had cracked floor tiles and water leaking from the roof and pipes. There were also drainage and garbage problem, and even though the Selayang Municipal Council (MPS) promised to solve the problem, it has been eight months since the problem have not been solved (Sundramoorthy Veerasamy, 2009). Sundramoorthy (2009) also mentioned that they are losing faith in the councillors and state government finding a solution. From this, Government should be able to come out with a solution to help these residents as they are also the citizens of Malaysia and deserve to live in a properly maintained place. Poor maintenance can also lead to criminal activities. According to the Star (7 May 2009) criminal activities like snatch thefts, break-ins, and motorcycle and car thefts are rampant there and drug addicts and pushers also haunt the area of the apartment. MPS councillor Gopalan Krishnan Rajoo (2009) also mentioned that because there is no Joint Management Body (JMB) for the apartment, it is difficult to solve the problems and residents were urged to form the JMB to bring up the residents’ problems so that they can be solved easily. From this report, it is shown that forming a JMB in a community is important to solve certain problems and that increase in poor maintenance also would increase the crime rate in the area. 2.2.4  Case Study of Poor Maintenance Abdulmohsen Al – Hammad, Sadi Assaf and Mansoor Al – Shihah (1997) in their research which outlines the defects and faults during the design stage that affect building maintenance in Saudi Arabia and their relative degree of importance, came out with a table on the level of importance of design defects on building maintenance. The following tables show the result from the questionnaire done from their research on the defects. From the table above, the maintenance practicality and adequacy which is one of the defect groups rank the highest among the owners. When maintenance are not planned and done adequately, there will be defects and the defects will worsen causing the building to be not safe for the occupants and even aesthetically affected. 2.3  Facilties In Condominium In Malaysia, there are many types of facilities available in a condominium. The National House Buyers Association (2009) mentioned that there are many facilities and services in a condominium, such as lifts, swimming pool, gym, tennis court, landscaped gardens and even security services. Further explanation was that these facilities and services are expensive to maintain. Facilities are actually one of the important key aspects which purchasers will look into when buying a condominium. This is because purchasers have to understand that they when purchasing a unit of the condominium, two things are bought. These two things are the individual unit and the common property which includes all the facilities available in the condominium. Nowadays, facilities play a big role in portraying the image of the condominium. Besides that, facilities available in a condominium also determine and set a standard to the condominium. This can be seen when the low – end condominiums and high – end condominiums are being compared. Types of facilities available will be very different for both types of condominium, where the facilities in the high – end condominiums are more and much better than those of low – end condominiums. 2.3.1  Malaysias Report On Facilities National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2008) reported that hairline cracks have appeared on pillars and car park areas of the Sri Gotong apartment block in Batu Caves for the past year. One of the occupants, Abd Rahman Suraiman, mentioned that the management company Benih Kencana Sdn. Bhd. Should act fast to prevent the situation from getting worse. According to Rahman, who is secretary of the Sri Gotong Apartment Batu Caves Pro – tem Committee, the apartment was supposed to have condominium facilities like swimming pool, recreational area and sauna, but such facilities were lacking and the place was not properly maintained. Rahman also mentioned that the sauna room is locked, the gymnasium equipment is damaged and ever since he started staying there, one of the lifts stopped working and has yet to be repair. This report shows that lacking of facilities in a condominium will also cause dissatisfaction to the occupants. Thus, this kind of problem gives the condominium a bad image. In another report from the National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2004) stated that the local authorities are often hampered in their efforts to build sports facilities when developers, in fulfilling the requirement of providing open areas, allocate land that is too small or narrow. The report also added that local authorities wanted to provide more recreational facilities, especially in housing estates, but were unable to do so in some areas due to the lack of land. Developers would usually tell local authorities that they had carried out their responsibility by providing recreational through building playgrounds which are meant for younger children and this leaves teenagers without a proper place for recreation. According to the report, this could more likely cause teenagers. Therefore, it is wise that the developers to allocate

Monday, January 20, 2020

Reverse Anorexia in Bodybuilders Essay -- Health Nutrition Exercise Pa

Reverse Anorexia in Bodybuilders Women compose the overwhelming majority of the reported cases of eating disorders. The, desire to be thin consumes many young women who idealize the false and unrealistic model form depicted in popular magazines. Recently, researchers have started to appreciate the role of exercise in the development of eating disorders. This shift has illuminated the striking influence of sports on body image satisfaction in men as well as women. The importance of a fit physique has grown increasingly salient to men in modem society as indicated by the rise of hypermasculine action heroes such as Arnold Schwartzenegger and Sylvester Stallone. One growing sport, bodybuilding, now has the sixth largest sports federation and has come to the attention of researchers. In the last few years, researchers have linked bodybuilding to an overwhelming drive for lean muscle mass coined "reverse anorexia" by Pope, Katz, and Hudson (1993) and "bigameraria" by Taylor(1985). The bodybuilders' obsessional behavior r esembles anorexia nervosa with remarkable similarity except that the drive for enormous muscles replaces the drive for thinness. This alarming psychological syndrome may motivate bodybuilders and weightlifters, to a lesser extent, to relinquish friends, to give up responsibilities, to pursue unusual diets, to overtrain and to risk their health by abusing steroids. Reverse Anorexia in Bodybuilders Bodybuilders who exhibit reverse anorexia strive constantly to gain more lean body mass, but even when successful persist in believing their size is inadequate. Pope et al. (1993) found that 8% of their bodybuilder subjects insisted that they were ver small when they were really big and muscular. This belief aff... ... 148, 917-922. Pasman, L., & Thompson, J. K. (19-8-8). Body and eating disturbance in -obligatory runners, obligatory weightlifters, and sedentary individuals. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7, 759-769. Pope, H. G., & Katz, D. L. (1988-)., Affective and. psychotic syndromes associated with use of anabolic steroids. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 487-490. Pope, H. G., Katz, D. L., & Hudson, J. 1. (1993). Anorexia nervosa and "reverse anorexia" among 108 male bodybuilders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34(6), 406-409. Schwartzenegger, A., & Hall, D. K. @ 19-82). Arnold- The education a builder. New York: Pocket Books. Taylor, W. N. (1985). Hormonal Manipulation: A new era of monstrous athletes. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland. Yates, A. (I991). Compulsive Exercise and the Eating disorders. New York: Brunner/ Mazel, Inc.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

King Lear †Analytical Monologue Essay

LEAR: It may be so, my lord. Hear, Nature, hear, dear goddess, hear!Suspend thy purpose if thou didst intend 270To make this creature fruitful. Into her womb convey sterility. Dry up in her the organs of increase,And from her derogate body never springA babe to honor her. If she must teem, 275Create her child of spleen, that it may liveAnd be a thwart disnatured torment to her. Let it stamp wrinkles in her brow of youth,With cadent tears fret channels in her cheeks,Turn all her mother’s pains and benefits 280To laughter and contempt, that she may feel-That she may feelHow sharper than a serpent’s tooth it isTo have a thankless child.-Away, away!In this particular monologue, it explores the theme, nature, immediately. Lear implores nature, to which he worships as a ‘goddess’ or deity to listen to his plea. He strongly believes that the god is capable of doing anything. For example, making her daughter sterile and drying up her womb so that no baby can come out. Before this monologue, Gonerill wishes that Lear would behave in an orderly manner and would listen to her. Lear then starts to question himself and he seems unable to believe that he is listening to his own daughter because he thinks he is their father and therefore should be able to do whatever he wants. â€Å"Are you our daughter?† Lear says. Later on, the Fool shows regret for Lear’s reduced status. Lear then becomes angry and declares he will go to Regan’s castle instead assuming she would welcome him. Lear attacks Gonerill’s ingratitude and defends his followers’ honour. After this, in rage, Lear curses Gonerill with no children and if she did have children, they would be disobedient and unloving. â€Å"Dry up in her the organs of increase, †¦ derogate body never spring †¦ Createher child of spleen, that it may live †¦ disnatured torment to her. Let it stamp wrinkles in her brow of youth†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Lear curses. Shakespeare’s King Lear is a play revolving around the themes of human nature, madness and childishness. In the beginning of this play, King Lear is involved in a childish incident where an old king decides to give away his kingdom to the child who loves him the most based on a speech. â€Å"Now, that we have divided in three our kingdom †¦ tell me, my daughters, which of you shall we say doth love us most, that we our largest bounty may extend†Realistically, who would be so foolish ask their children to show their love on some bluffed words and base his will on what they say? (rhetorical question)The words ‘nature’ appear many times in the play. Why is ‘nature’ so important in the play? One major reason is that it is a powerful means of controlling people. Lear along with other characters think that what is ‘natural’ is right. For example, for much of the play, Lear believes everything he does is natural and any person who frustrates him is unnatural, because it is natural that everyone should obey him without question because he is king. Nature herself is a goddess to whom he can talk to. â€Å"Hear, Nature, hear, dear goddess, hear!† As Lear begs. There are two different views of nature in Shakespeare’s play, a good or a bad way. Characters are classified as good or evil accordingly to their view of nature. In this monologue, Lear is ‘mad’ and has the evil nature in him at the moment. An example of when nature is evil is with the characters, Edmund, Gonerill and Regan. The evil nature in them feeds and motivates them and make them behave like ruthless predatorial animals. A major type of image used in the play is that of animals. These are used mainly to compare the character’s behaviours and nature with animals. Animals are seen in the play to be insignificant creatures. In the play, Shakespeare suggests that sometimes humans can be as cruel and insignificant  as animals are. He uses metaphors about serpents and fanged animals to compare with the evil character in the play. â€Å"How sharper than a serpent’s tooth it is,† as Lear would say to curse Gonerill. â€Å"Kind Lear†, William Shakespeare

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Ways to Solve Poverty. - 828 Words

Ways to Solve Poverty America, Home of the brave, Home of the free, Home of the poor. A overwhelming amount of Americans in our own country struggle under the poverty line everyday. They struggle for food, water, and a place to rest their heads at night, and they struggle for those for their kids all the while. A person is in a state of poverty when they cannot afford the necessities of life. Poverty is something government needs to deal with more because it carries a double cost to them and the tax payers, the poor people take their needed services, but they are unable to pay back their debt, sometimes they never are. Poverty also leads to a lower economic output, lower education, and lower productivity. Things such as Income and wealth†¦show more content†¦The top 20% of American’s own 81% of this nation’s wealth yet they pay 61% of this nations taxes. They are more than able to afford taxes and in a time when this country is in dire need of tax money they need to step up and take those cuts. If the 2nd 20% of American’s only bring in 12.2% of this nations income yet they pay 19% of this nation’s income then it’s time for the rich to start coughing up the cash. The rich 60.2 of the nation’s income and still pay 61% of this nations taxes and that’s not fair. If everyone else can pay without their fair share of income for way worse jobs then the rich should start paying up. This brings up the most important point, What is the government doing about poverty in America. They run many programs through many departments. Some of these programs include Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, Food Stamps, Housing, and Unemployment. But all these programs are running and we still have a 12.1% poverty rate. Is the federal government doing enough for this 12.1%, No. This stat was taken in 2002 and we have had another recession since then and poverty is higher now than it was 30 years ago. We have pretty much overturned everything LBJ did in his war on poverty. Big companies are not helping either by outsourcing jobs that these poverty line American’s could perform. And government is thinking they are helping by raising the minimumShow MoreRelatedDifferent Solutions to Poverty in Urban Areas1357 Words   |  6 PagesDifferent solutions to poverty in urban areas 1. Introduction: Poverty can be defined in two ways, which are absolute poverty and relative poverty. In terms of absolute poverty, Murray (2004:2) suggests that the lack of an adequate income and cannot gain access to basic necessities to provide for basic human needs-food, clothing, warmth and shelter- are a clear indication of poverty. In a relative way, there was an assumption that a certain standard of living was normal, and that those living belowRead MoreA Study On Sub Saharan Africa1051 Words   |  5 Pageswhere hundreds of millions of people in Africa living like this. What you think about such a horrible living condition? Before I started my work on this topic, I was already aware that poverty is a tremendous issue in Africa through my research in reading articles online. What I didn’t know was that the scale of poverty was so tremendous and that it’s very widespread in the continent. But in my paper, I will be focusing primarily on Sub-Saharan Africa. Before I started this research, I didn’t have muchRead MoreRace, Gender, And Social Class991 Words   |  4 Pagesand social class has several implications in the United States and how it shapes policy and perceptions of those who live in poverty. Current welfare systems are not perfect, and capitalistic policies do not work as intended to solve income inequalities. Given this, we will discuss social inequalities and capitalism, the welfare system, and propose two policies that solves welfare, and social and income inequalities. The first key idea from the materials is that social inequities and capitalismRead MorePoverty And Its Effects On The International Landscape Of Poverty Essay1717 Words   |  7 Pages The variations in living standard among people from place to place and from time to time have always existed. Greed, injustice and inequality are the three sides of the triangle of poverty and wherever we see them, poverty is always there. Humans cannot overcome a serious problem such as poverty without addressing those three main causes. Even this problem is worldwide; it varies from one area to another. It is higher in areas which were colonized for a long time before such as AfricaRead MoreFinancial Literacy Is The Key For Managing Money895 Words   |  4 Pagescritical knowledge of ways to avoid investment fraud.† Experts say that the result is young people are drawn into debt, and older Americans face bleak retirement possibilities. These basic financial concepts that people do n’t understand leads them in a situation where they can not find hidden fees, low interest policies, and fraud investors. Politicians should represent the people, and when representing the people you should look for actions to help people. Financial literacy solves for this issue, andRead MoreWhy Africa Can Prevent The Food Crisis871 Words   |  4 PagesBecause Africa has underdeveloped agricultural resources, including arable land, an agricultural transformation could break the cycle of poverty among the African people. Keeping all this in mind, the overall global question presented is if Africa is the answer we have been looking for to solve the food crisis. Dr. Galbraith addressed this question in several ways. Per the data, we will reach an estimated population of 8.3 billion people by 2030, which requires 50% more energy and food and 30% moreRead MoreTaking a Brief Look at Poverty in Egypt Essay1704 Words   |  7 PagesPoverty In Egypt Poverty is not only affecting poor ones but the whole society is totally affected by it. The rate if poverty actually depends on the country and its condition, the more the country is corrupted the more the poverty increases, thats why in the most developed countries the rate of poverty becomes too lower than the developing ones. Being a poor person means being deprived of the basic needs to live as a human being in any society and thats why according to human rights there shouldRead MorePoverty Is A Social Problem957 Words   |  4 PagesStates is the wealthiest nation in the world, but yet poverty remains prevalent. Childhood poverty affects every aspect of their life. â€Å"Poverty is not having income for basic needs, food, medical care or basic needs and housing† (Crosson-Tower, 2014, p. 59). Poverty is affecting thousands of Americans every day, and it isn t sparing anyone of a particular race, age or gender, leaving people on welfare, and without homes, or transportati on. Poverty is a crisis that deserves attention from everyone,Read MorePoverty Is The Worst Form Of Violence1595 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Poverty is the worst form of violence† (Mahatma Gandhi). Living in poverty causes people to have extremely bad nutrition, to get severe diseases, and it forces children to work. This is a worldwide problem that affects children, mothers, fathers, and everyone else that has come close or lived in poverty. By registering more people living in poverty to vote in elections and spreading awareness it will drastically change many lives. When families live in poverty and parents do not have enough moneyRead MorePoverty Essay931 Words   |  4 PagesTiara Bradshaw Mrs. Prince ENG 0123 17 November 2017 Poverty is something that many have suffered or still suffer from today. Poverty has changed a lot of lives for many years now. Many countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Zimbabwe, and Niger are some of the poorest countries. This affects their education, society, environment, health, children, and even the crime rates. Poverty has become one of the greatest challenges in today’s society and is a major issue that

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Maupassant s Gender Role Phenomenon - 2007 Words

Ryan Henry Carol Bove ENGLIT 0625 26 October 2015 Maupassant’s Gender Role Phenomenon Guy De Maupassant, a French writer in the late 1800’s, is considered one of the pioneers of the short story genre. One of the most important themes in Guy De Maupassant’s short stories is how he captures the roles of men and women in late nineteenth century France, and how he incorporates his own personal twist to each gender’s identity. In this essay, I plan to take a look at the gender roles in the film â€Å"Le Plaisir† and how it relates to Maupassant’s personal life. In order to fully understand how Maupassant presents his gender roles, one must first familiarize with his early life and childhood. Maupassant was born in Dieppe, France in 1850. His parents separated when he was only 11, and he moved to Normandy with his mother. He never saw much of his father, who left when the marriage failed. His father was known to frequent brothels and whore houses for comfort. He and his mother were extremely close , and they adored each other. However, this relationship was very unhealthy. She let him do whatever he wanted, at a young age he enjoyed boating and fishing, so he would often took his boat out by himself without any supervision. On top of that, his rejected mother would often share her negative views on men with her young son. Because of the destructive failed marriage his parents suffered through, Maupassant grew to see marriage in a very negative light. They often engaged in fierce

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales - 1306 Words

In Geoffrey Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer uses the climax of The Wife of Bath s Prologue to illustrate how through the influence of the church, the figure of the wife, was seen either as week or evil. Chaucer makes this point by using religious terms and imagery, like sister and smite, and the symbol of the lion. After establishing this point, he then shows how damaging this idea can be, by showing how hollow and disturbing the relationship between the wife and her husband becomes, when the husband is in the submissive role, through the use of homonyms and objective language. Chaucer quickly get s into the religious imagery in order to begin the shift of power between the Wife of Bath and her husband. Less than 10 lines in, Chaucer has the Wife of Bath compare her husband to a lion â€Å"And he up stirte as dooth a wood leoun, And with his fest he smoot me on the heed.† (Line 794-95) In the Bible, lions can both be good and evil. On one hand, they are frequently used as a simile for God. In Hosea 11:10, the roar of the lion is used to covey the power and righteousness of the word of God, â€Å"They shall go after the Lord; he will roar like a lion; when he roars, his children shall come trembling from the west;†. Yet, there are also several examples of the lion as an evil creature, in 1 Peter 5:8, the lion is compared to the devil, â€Å"Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.† Both examples liken aShow MoreRelatedChaucer s The Canterbury Tales1064 Words    |  5 PagesGeoffrey Chaucer, The Author of the Canterbury Tales, is known as the Father of English Literature and is one of the greatest English Poets of the Middle Ages. Chaucer was a soldier, a diplomat, a civil servant, and a courtier, enabling him to experience different aspects of each social ranking, which he demonstrated through his poetry. The Canterbury Tales, his most famous work, is a collection of short stories within a frame story, making for an interesting and memorable narrative about 29 pilgrimsRead MoreChaucer s The Canterbury Tales906 Words   |  4 PagesIn the general prologue to Geoffrey Chaucer’s, The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer reveals his dissatisfaction of the distribution of power and how that power was maintained in the Medieval England estate system, through the use of his physical description of each of the pilgrims and by the personality of specific members of each caste. To portray these characters and the flaws that they represent in actual me dieval society, Chaucer heavily relies on the use of irony to describe many of the travelers inRead MoreAn Analysis Of Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales 2650 Words   |  11 Pagesof Chaucer’s Miller in The Canterbury Tales In the prologue to The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer introduces the Miller as a crude, rude, loud character who cheats his customers. The tale, which the Miller later narrates, is appropriate because the Miller’s tale clearly reflects this individual’s unrefined personality by telling a typical, filthy tavern story. The Canterbury Tales, written by Geoffrey Chaucer, is a story that details thirty pilgrims, including Chaucer, traveling on a religiousRead MoreChaucer s The Canterbury Tales1634 Words   |  7 PagesIn The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer uses ambiguities when describing the pilgrims in the General Prologue. The Pardoner is a preacher described as a clean-shaven, feminine male who has stringy blonde hair with a high-pitched voice. More specifically, he is a greedy man who fools and flatters others to get money by doing Christ’s holy work and pardoning them of their evil greed and sin, yet, he is the epitome of greed (GP 688-91). everyone is virtuous, rather selfish, and can show throughRead MoreGeoffrey Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales1781 Words   |  8 Pagesrelationship and were wholly looked down upon. During these women s lifetimes, sovereignty was sought after but never fully achieved. Women were looked at as a way to please the man and someone to carry his child when time came. In modern time, the extremist who don t support equality among women and men are known as misogynists or anti-feminists. On the side of the spectrum, those who do support equality are known as feminists. Geoffrey Chaucer, who is by some considered a proto-feminist writer, is oneRead MoreThe Friar s Tale Of Geoffrey Chaucer s Canterbury Tales Essay1508 Words   |  7 PagesWalker Mr. Abel British Lit/comp. 7 November 2016 The Friar’s Tale Many pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales held a religious position. Some of these people’s personal ideas have caused debates and criticism over Chaucer’s opinion of the Catholic Church. Critics have discussed the ideas that were presented both subtly and openly. Two of the pilgrims and their tales will be discussed: the Prioress and the Pardoner. Both of these tales offer points of criticism in the Catholic Church. The PrioressRead MoreWilliam Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales942 Words   |  4 Pages Period 03 The Character Description For the past few English classes, we have been reading The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. Chaucer lived from 1342-1400, around the time of the Hundred Years’ War. He fought in this battle, was captured and then ransomed with money contributed by the English king, King Edward himself. After his military campaign, Chaucer became a court official. This required him to travel to countries such as France, Spain and Italy. In these placesRead MoreChaucer s Canterbury Tales And The Wife Of Bath s Tale1167 Words   |  5 Pagesimprove a part of society in a moral basis. The reason it targets a part of society is because didactic literature has an audience of origin that the moral applies to. For example, Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales: â€Å"The Wife of Bath s Prologue† and â€Å"The Wife of Bath s Tale† , which is written by Geoffrey Chaucer, takes place during the late 5th and early 6th century during King Arthur’s reign of Great Britain. During this era, society was structured in a totally different manner than the society anotherRead MoreAnalysis Of Geoffrey Chaucer s Canterbury Tales Essay1670 Words   |  7 Pagesthemselves. This first exploit of trust can be found within Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. While the whole entire work exposes corruptions within the Catholic Church during Chaucer’s time, the breaking of trust is actually demonstrated within the Pardoner’s Prologue and Tale. At the end of the Pardoner’s tale, he offers the pilgrimage relics, for a fee of course. However, at the prologue of the Pardoner’s tale, the Pardoner himself has explained how the Catholic Church and other fellow pardonersRead MoreAnalysis Of Geoffrey Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales 1697 Words   |  7 Pages Geoffrey Chaucer Thinking of Geoffrey Chaucer one may only consider him as the author of The Canterbury Tales but like most authors they are not only their best works. Unfortunately for most late poets and authors their history isn’t much known, it is usually not documented in general. Yet fortunately for Chaucer he has worked for people who do get their history written about which makes his past a little more well known than other poets of his time. So of course with this there are biographies